Understanding the 4 Asof Marketing

4 As of Marketing

INTRODUCTION

According to Jagdish Sheth and Rajendra Sisodia, poor performance due to lack of awareness of customer motivations is behind most marketing failures The authors argue that customer knowledge is the most reliable path to success. In their customer-oriented marketing and business model, they believe that the most important customer value is—acceptance, affordability, availability, and visibility—the so-called four As

4 As of Marketing

Acceptability

Acceptability refers to the extent to which a company’s overall product offering exceeds customer expectations. The authors emphasize that acceptance is a strong aspect of the process and that the stereotype is at the core of its acceptance. For example, the functional aspect of the design can be enhanced by increasing the basic utility of the product or increasing reliability; Changes in brand image, packing and design, and positioning can improve psychological acceptance.

Affordability

Affordability means that customers in the target market are able and willing to pay for the product. It has two components: financial (compensation) and psychological (compensation). Taken together, acceptance determines the value of a product. When Peachtree Software reduced the price of its accounting software from $5000 to $199 and began charging for customer support, sales demand soared.

Accessibility

Availability, the extent to which consumers can easily access a product, has two dimensions: availability and convenience. Successful companies develop innovative ways to offer both, as online shoe retailer Zappos does with excellent customer service, return policies and up-to-date information on warehouse inventory, accessories and of subsequent fashions.

Awareness

Insights where consumers are informed about a product’s quality, motivated to try it, and reminded to buy again. It has two components: brand awareness and product knowledge. Sheth and Sisodia say that insight is very ripe for growth because most companies are ineffective or ineffective in its development. For example, well-crafted advertising can be incredibly powerful, but word-of-mouth marketing and co-marketing can reach potential customers better.

CONCLUSION

Sheth and Sisodia base the 4 As framework on the four distinctive roles a consumer plays in the marketplace—seeker, buyer, payer, and user. A fifth consumer role—evangelizer—captures the fact that consumers often recommend products to others and are increasingly critical with the advent of the Internet and social media platforms. Note that we can easily relate the 4 As to the traditional 4 Ps. Marketers set the product (which mainly influences acceptability), the price (which mainly influences affordability), the place (which mainly influences accessibility), and promotion (which mainly influences awareness).

Sources: Jagdish N. Sheth and Rajendra Sisodia, The 4 A’s of Marketing: Creating Value for Customer, Company and Society (New York: Routledge, 2012); “New Rules: Jagdish Sheth Outlines 4A’s of Marketing,” The Financial Express, April 6, 2004; “Industry Leaders Discuss Marketing for Not for Profit Organizations @ BIMTECH Marketing Summit,” www.mbauniverse.com, May 1, 2012.

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